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Nickel release measurement

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The presence of nickel in some objects that have direct and long contact with the human body may cause skin allergies and may lead to allergic reactions, which are particularly evident in some Western races. In view of the above reasons, the European Union proposed that the use of nickel in certain items should be limited.
 
On 30 June 1994, the EU issued Directive 94/27/EC, amending Directive 76/769/EEC for the twelfth time. The requirements are as follows:
 
1. The nickel content in homogeneous materials must be less than 0.05% whether or not the products that can penetrate human body parts, such as earrings, can be removed later.
 
2. Products in direct and long-term contact with the human body:
 
- Earrings;
 
- Necklaces, bracelets, bracelets, ankles, rings;
 
- Watch case, watch chain, handle, etc.
 
- Buttons, tightening devices, rivets, zippers and metal markings on clothing, etc.
 
Nickel release should not exceed 0.5ug/cm_/week.
 
If the products in Article 3.2 have no nickel coating and can ensure that the nickel release of these products will not exceed 0.5ug/cm/week for at least two years under normal service conditions.
 
On July 20, 1997, the EU issued three harmonized standards, EN1810, EN1811 and EN12472, according to the requirements of 94/27/EC. The standard quantitative analysis method for nickel release was defined. Six months after the implementation of the 94/27/EC directive, producers and importers will no longer be allowed to supply products with unqualified nickel content or nickel release. After 18 months, sales to end-users are not allowed.
 
Scope of application: Children's products, including metal rivets, buttons, fasteners, zippers, metal plates and signs on toys or children's clothing. In 2004, the EU adopted the 2004/96/EC Directive, amending all pierced objects and implementing it in September 2005. The 2004/96/EC no longer requires that the total content of nickel in piercing ears or other parts of the body be less than 0.05%, but that the release of nickel should not exceed 0.2ug/cm2/week.
 
PFOS/PFOA Testing, PFOS/PFOA Testing, PFOS/PFOA Standard
 
PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonates): refers to perfluorooctanesulfonates. It is short for perfluorooctanesulfonates. It belongs to high-fluoride compounds. The common species on the market are C8F17SO2X, in which X can be a derivative group of hydroxyl, metal salts, halides, amino or other polymers. At present, one of the most refractory organic pollutants found in the world has persistence, high bioaccumulation, multi-toxicity and long-distance environmental transmission capacity.
 
"PFOS" is a representative fluorinated organic compound, at the same time, it is also a widely used chemical substance. It is widely used to produce surface antifouling agents such as textiles, leather products, furniture and carpets. Because of its very stable chemical properties, it is used as an intermediate for the production of paints, foam extinguishing agents, floor polish, pesticides and termites. It is used in synthetic detergents, denture detergents, shampoos and other surfactant products for daily use. Up to now, PFOS-containing products are often used in industry in photoresist and component cleaning processes in the production of microelectronic parts, as well as paper surface treatment and utensil production processes, including nearly 1,000 kinds of products such as paper-based food packaging materials and non-stick pots, which are closely related to people's lives.
 
The control directive of PFOS in the European Union is 2006/122/EC. The main contents of the directive are as follows:
 
1) PFOS should not be more than 0.005%.
 
2) No more than 0.1% in finished and semi-finished products.
 
3) The limit of textiles and other coating materials is 1ug/m2.
 
PFOA (Perfluorooctanoicacid), also known as C8, is a synthetic rather than natural industrial raw material. The abbreviation of PFOA refers not only to perfluorooctanoate, but also to its salts. Among them, its ammonium salt, Ammonium perfluorooctanoate, is the most widely used and concerned one. PFOA is a basic processing aid in the production of fluoropolymer. It is widely used in surface treatment of household products, such as non stick cooking utensils, food packaging materials, antifouling textiles and fire fighting foam. PFOA is suspected to have similar hazards to PFOS. With the basic characteristics of persistent organic pollutants, trace PFOA residues were found in human blood. High doses of PFOA in animal experiments have shown the role of carcinogenesis in many parts of the animal body. The Norwegian PoHS directive limits PFOA: ammonium perfluorooctanate to 0.005% (1ug/m2 for textiles or other coating materials).

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